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Organ Transplants and Economic Injustice

Posted by libhom Tuesday, November 18, 2008

Economic injustice in this society can be brutal, but just how brutal often stays under the radar of the corporate media. Did you know, for instance, that the uninsured are much less likely to get organ transplants than the insured? Check out this 11/17/08 press release from Physicians for a National Health Program (PNHP).

The Uninsured Often Donate Organs, but Rarely Receive Them

CHICAGO - November 17 - People who lack health insurance are about 20 times more likely to donate their liver or a kidney for a lifesaving transplant than to receive one, a new study shows.

A team of Harvard University researchers, writing in the current issue of International Journal of Health Services, reports that a representative sampling of U.S. patients in 2003 shows that at least 16.9 percent of organ donors had no health insurance at the time of their hospitalization. In contrast, only 0.8 percent of the transplant recipients were similarly uninsured; in other words, almost all recipients had some kind of health coverage at the time of their procedure.

Among the transplant recipients, equal proportions (44.2 percent) were covered by private insurance or by Medicare, a public program that serves seniors and some of the disabled (including virtually all patients needing kidney transplants). Medicaid, a government program for the poor, covered another 9 percent. About 2 percent were covered under other programs.

Among organ donors, however, insurance coverage was much less extensive. Private insurance was the most common source of payment for their medical bills (44.8 percent), followed by Medicare (14.6 percent) and Medicaid (2.6 percent). One-fifth of organ donors' insurance status was listed as "other," a designation that may have indicated that their bills were paid by organ procurement organizations. Some of these may have been uninsured for other medical care. Yet even assuming that all of these had coverage, the authors found that 16.9 percent of the organ donors were uninsured. By comparison, only 4.6 percent of other inpatients were uninsured.

The authors analyzed data from the 2003 National Inpatient Sample, a representative sample of hospital stays compiled by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Using AHRQ guidelines, the research team extrapolated their results from the coded hospital records of 1,447 solid organ donors (including donors of kidneys, pancreases, livers, hearts, lungs and corneas) and 4,962 recipients.

The finding that most transplant recipients were insured at the time of their transplant had previously been known. However, "our finding that uninsured patients frequently serve as organ donors is both new and poignant," the authors write. "The U.S. health care system denies adequate care to many of the uninsured during life. Yet, in death, the uninsured often give strangers the ultimate gift."

Strikingly, lack of insurance was a stronger predictor of organ donation than was any hospital characteristic or demographic factor other than age (older people's organs are more often diseased and unsuitable for transplantation).

The authors emphasize that the asymmetry of who donates organs and who receives them does not reflect "the values or intentions" of the medical transplant community, whose members avow a "commitment to equal access for all patients."

They also point out that, because organ transplantation uses a "scarce resource that can only come from fellow human beings," special protocols, including guidelines adopted by Congress, have been developed to improve equity in the transplantation of organs.

The lead author of the study, Dr. Andrew Herring, commented: "If you lack the financial resources to afford a transplant either through insurance or otherwise, few centers will consider you as a candidate. The 1984 National Organ Transplant Act stipulates that transplants should be equally available to all Americans, regardless of their ability to pay. Unfortunately, the health care system is presently not funded adequately to make this a reality." Herring is currently an emergency medicine resident at Highland Hospital in Oakland, California. He performed the study while he was a medical student at Harvard.

Dr. Steffie Woolhandler, a co-author and associate professor of medicine at Harvard, said, "The fact that many organ donors were uninsured dramatically highlights the lack of fairness in the U.S. health care system as a whole. The only way to surmount this problem is to adopt a single-payer national health insurance program, which would guarantee comprehensive and affordable care to everyone without exception."

The lack of health coverage is responsible for at least 18,000 deaths annually, according to the Institute of Medicine. In August, the Census Bureau reported that 45.6 million Americans lacked health insurance in 2007.

"Insurance status of U.S. organ donors and transplant recipients: The uninsured give, but rarely receive," Andrew A. Herring, M.D.; Steffie Woolhandler, M.D.; and David U. Himmelstein, M.D. International Journal of Health Services (New York), Vol. 38, No. 4.

A copy of the study is available at http://www.pnhp.org/organ_donors

###

Physicians for a National Health Program, a membership organization of over 15,000 physicians, supports a single-payer national health insurance program. To contact a physician-spokesperson in your state, call (312) 782-6006 or visit www.pnhp.org/stateactions.

Obviously, this information is an example of why we need Single Payer Healthcare in this country. However, there is a broader point that shouldn't be lost. Since 1980, most Democrats and virtually all Republicans have worked to make this society more unjust economically, often with deadly consequences for people who don't make that much money.

We cannot honestly call our country "civilized" as long as these kind of things continue to happen.

 

5 comments

  1. Dave Says:
  2. There is a simple way to fix this problem -- allocate donated organs first to people who have agreed to donate their own organs when they die.

    Giving organs first to organ donors will convince more people to register as organ donors. It will also make the organ allocation system fairer. People who aren't willing to share the gift of life should go to the back of the waiting list as long as there is a shortage of organs.

    Anyone who wants to donate their organs to others who have agreed to donate theirs can join LifeSharers. LifeSharers is a non-profit network of organ donors who agree to offer their organs first to other organ donors when they die. Membership is free at www.lifesharers.org or by calling 1-888-ORGAN88. There is no age limit, parents can enroll their minor children, and no one is excluded due to any pre-existing medical condition.

     
  3. skebber Says:
  4. Hi..
    Thank you for his all information..
    this is info input to me..

     
  5. GDAEman Says:
  6. We might just get more universal health care now the the corporations (read Auto Industry) are discovering they can't afford it. Again, "Privatize profit, socialize..." you know the rest.

     
  7. Bronwynn Says:
  8. I came across your blog while doing a bit of research for a class presentation on organ donation, and I have to say, that article is very interesting. A little scary, too. Thanks for putting it out there.

     
  9. Mauigirl Says:
  10. Excellent post. This is a serious problem and just not fair.

    I would like to see the default be for people to donate their organs and they would have to make the effort to opt out of it, rather than the other way around. Then there would be plenty of organs for everyone.

    BTW, you have an award waiting for you over at my place!

     

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